Pacific EMPRINTS Home Skip Navigation Links

LEADING DISASTER EXPERTS SPEAK AT CONFERENCE

MODERATOR

DR. CHRISTIAN KIMO ALAMEDA, PhD


Dr. Kimo Alameda

Dr. Alameda holds the positions of Director of the Office of Multicultural Services at the Hawaii State Department of Health’s Adult Mental Health Division and is also the Statewide Cultural Specialist and Trainer at the Hawaii State Department of Health’s Office of Health Equity

Biracial and bicultural, Dr. C. Kimo Alameda grew up on the Island of Hawaii, a living example of multicultural Hawai‘i. His Portuguese and Hawaiian ancestry meant he grew up in two different cultural traditions. These childhood experiences prepared him for his early work as a school counselor and special education teacher. After many years in the Department of Education, Dr. Alameda went back to school and received a doctorate from the University of Nebraska. In 2008, Dr. Alameda was presented with an award from Mental Health America as the Outstanding Government Agency Leader for his work in increasing cultural awareness in state government. As Dr. Alameda accepted his award, he was quoted with saying “we cannot be a first class state, with people who feel second class.” His commitment to diversity has made him a popular speaker on cultural and social issues. On the weekends, Dr. Alameda coaches a number of youth sports and volunteers as a presenter for at-risk youth community programs. Most impressively, Dr. Alameda is the proud father of seven children all under that age of thirteen.

NATIONAL AND STATE EXPERTS
*AGENDA AND SPEAKERS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE

DR. JERRIS HEDGES, MD, MS, MMM

“Opening Remarks”

Dr. Jerris Hedges

Dr. Jerris Hedges became Dean of the John A. Burns School of Medicine in March 2008. He brought with him a wealth of experience and a record of significant accomplishments.

During his twenty-year career at the internationally-respected Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU) Medical School, Dr. Hedges served as Associate Professor, Professor, and Department Chair in Emergency Medicine. He was named Vice Dean at OHSU in 2005.

Dr. Hedges helped form the OHSU Center for Policy & Research in Emergency Medicine. Its success led the NIH to recognize the OHSU Department of Emergency Medicine as one of the “top ten” in the nation. Dr. Hedges has also served as President of both the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine. In October 2000, Dr. Hedges was elected to the prestigious National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine (IOM), which advises the nation on biomedical science, medicine and health.

Dr. Hedges has published more than 100 medical articles and authored several books, including Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine, which is a preferred text for those training in the demanding field of emergency medicine.

Dr. Hedges earned a bachelors degree in astronautics and aeronautics, a master’s degree in chemistry, and his medical degree at the University of Washington. He completed his residency at the Medical College of Pennsylvania and served on the faculty of the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine before joining OHSU. Dr. Hedges also holds a Master of Medical Management from the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California.

Dean Hedges and his wife, Susan, have two grown children.


DR. FREDERICK “SKIP” M. BURKLE, MD, MPH, DTM, FAAP, FACEP

“Future Humanitarian Crisis: Challenges for Practice, Policy and Public Health”

Dr. Skip Burkle After more than three decades of preoccupation with wars and internal political conflicts, the humanitarian community has the opportunity to re-evaluate what humanitarian crises will dominate both policy and practice in the future. In reality, these crises are already active and some are over the tipping point of recovery. These crises share the common thread of being major public health emergencies. With a preponderance of excess or indirect mortality and morbidity dominating the consequences, these crises requires new approaches, including unprecedented improvements and alterations in education, training, research, strategic planning, and policy and treaty agendas. Unfortunately, political solutions offered to date are nation-state centric and miss opportunities to provide what must be shared global initiatives and solutions. Public health, defined as the infrastructure and systems necessary to allow communities, urban settings, and nation-states to provide physical and social protections to their populations has become an essential element of global health that is multidisciplinary and trespasses existing professional boundaries. Public health, must be recognized as a global strategic and security issue that takes precedence over politics at every level, not be driven by political motives and be globally monitored.

“Developing Community Level Disaster Resiliency: Myths and Modern Day Successes”

Disaster resiliency has become a commonly used term and subject of study especially as it relates to post-disaster community recovery. Unfortunately, resiliency is a frequently misunderstood term, difficult to define and operationalize. This presentation suggests that while there are limits to our capacity to respond and remain resilient at the community level in some disaster situations, there are certain capacities that can be exploited to ensure that critical community level dialogue, decisions and discourse take place. There are common myths about existing community level resiliency and response that are not appreciated by disaster planners and inherent disconnects in strategic planning that ignore building community level capacities. Some examples of how this gap has been narrowed are offered. The presentation will seek audience participation.

Professor Burkle is Senior Fellow & Scientist, the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Harvard School of Public Health and Senior Associate and Research Scientist, the Center for Refugee & Disaster Response, Johns Hopkins University Medical Institutes. He also serves as a Senior International Public Policy Scholar, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, DC (2008-2010). From 2002-03 he served as Deputy Assistant Administrator for the Bureau of Global Health at US Agency for International Development, US Department of State. From 1989 to 2000, he was Professor of Pediatrics, Surgery and Public Health and Chairman of the Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Hawaii Schools of Medicine and Public Health. He served as Professor, Department of Community Emergency Health & Paramedic Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences, Monash University Medical School, Melbourne, Australia from 2006-2010 and is currently an Adjunct Professor; and, as a Clinical Professor of Surgery and Adjunct Professor in Tropical Medicine at the University of Hawaii. He is Adjunct Professor, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. He served as the Senior Advisor in Medicine and Public Health for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and as a Research Scientist for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

He is a graduate of Saint Michael's College (1961) and the University of Vermont College of Medicine (1965). Dr. Burkle holds post-graduate degrees from Yale, Harvard, Dartmouth, the University of California at Berkeley, a Diploma from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, in Health Emergencies in Large Populations, and a Diploma In Tropical Medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland. He is qualified in Emergency Medicine, Pediatrics, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, and Psychiatry and holds a Master's Degree in Public Health. He is a Fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians and the American Academy of Pediatrics, and received the Emergency Physician of the Year Award in 1999 from the Governor of Hawaii. Dr. Burkle was the founder and Director of the Center of Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance from 1994-2000 a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for humanitarian civil-military cooperation, the only one so designated.

Professor Burkle has published over 190 scientific articles, abstracts and multiple book chapters, four books, three on disaster management including Disaster Medicine a sentinel text on the emergency response to disasters (1984). He has worked in and consulted on numerous humanitarian emergencies and large-scale international disasters in Asia, Africa, Middle East and Eastern Europe and serves as an International Health Delegate to the Red Cross. He served as Joint Civil-Military Liaison for the Kurdish Crisis in southern Turkey, northern Iraq, and Baghdad, and again in the humanitarian crisis in Somalia where he also served as a UN Delegate to the 3rd Somalia Conference in Ethiopia. In 1996, he headed a global health assessment for the International Rescue Committee in the former Yugoslavia, Central Africa, Thai-Cambodia Border, Asia and Pakistan and in 1999 was a member of the Presidential Delegation to Kosovo. In 2003 he served the US State Department as the Senior Medical Officer in Iraq on the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) for the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance. He also served as the Interim Minister of Health in Iraq during the planning and relief phase of the crisis in 2003, as Senior Advisor for WHO on Health Emergencies in Liberia, and currently as a consultant for WHO-Health Action in Crises. He is presently the elected Chair of the National Disaster Life Support Consortium of the American Medical Association and a member of the Science Advisory Board of the National American Red Cross, Washington, DC.

Dr. Burkle was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 2007, and named a Woodrow Wilson International Scholar in 2008. In 2009 he received an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters, Honoris Causis, from Saint Michaels College. He has received numerous "Excellence in Teaching" and humanitarian service awards. These include the prestigious William Crawford Gorgas Medal for "distinguished work in preventive medicine, groundbreaking work in disaster management and humanitarian assistance and the training of an entire generation of U.S. and international personnel”, the Colonel Donald G. Cook Award for Humanitarian Service, and the Humanitarian Award from the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. In 2005 he received the University of Vermont, College of Medicine Alumni Association Award for Community Service in Medicine for his “distinguished career in humanitarian and military service.” He is a frequent keynote and panel speaker at major universities and conferences, including WHO, The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the World Bank. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the International Rescue Committee, the world's largest refugee NGO, headquartered in New York City and was their Executive Medical Director in 1999.

A retired Captain in the U.S. Naval Reserve he completed combat tours in the Vietnam (1968) and the Persian Gulf Wars with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Marine Divisions, and with the US Central Command in Somalia. He received two early promotions and served as the Senior Medical Officer of the al Khanjar Trauma Center (largest trauma center ever built in the history of the US Marine Corps) during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. His awards include the Bronze Star Medal (2 awards) one with Combat "V", Combat Action Ribbon, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Navy Commendation Medal, Army Commendation Medal, Joint Meritorious Unit Citation (2 awards), Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry, Vietnamese Meritorious Medical Medal, the Humanitarian Service Medal (2 awards) and the Military Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal.

DR. ALAN R. KATZ, MD, MPH

“Bioterrorism Preparedness Survey of Health Professionals in Hawaii”

Dr. Alan Katz This presentation will describe a state-wide bioterrorism (BT) preparedness survey of a representative sample of health professionals in Hawaii undertaken during June-July 2004. The survey instrument included questions on perceived abilities to recognize and respond to a BT event. The instrument also objectively assessed the knowledge base of the study population and assessed stated willingness to provide assistance to the state if a BT event should occur.

Respondents scored 60-70% on objective knowledge-based questions. Less than 25% of study subjects had received prior BT preparedness training. Less than 20% of non-mental health professionals felt able to respond effectively to a BT event (46-55% of mental health professionals felt able to respond effectively), yet, over 70% of study participants expressed their willingness to provide support to the state if a BT event was to occur. These findings indicate the need for additional BT preparedness training targeting healthcare professionals to help improve their ability to respond effectively to a BT event.

Dr. Al Katz is Professor and Graduate Chair in the Department of Public Health Sciences at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii.

Dr. Katz earned his MD at the University of California, Irvine College of Medicine, and his Masters degree in Public Health from the University of Hawaii School of Public Health. He is board certified in Preventive Medicine and is a Fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine and the American College of Epidemiology.

Prior to his faculty appointment at the University of Hawaii in 1988, Dr. Katz served as the medical director at a community health center on Oahu and director of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Program at the Hawaii State Department of Health. Dr. Katz has been a visiting professor at the Wuhan University School of Public Health, Wuhan China, and clinical faculty with the Pacific Basin Medical Officers Training Program, Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia. He also served as a faculty member for a World AIDS Foundation HIV/AIDS prevention research training workshop in Hanoi, Vietnam.

In 2003, Dr. Katz received funding through a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant to survey health care professionals in Hawaii regarding their preparedness to respond to a bioterrorism event. Dr. Katz has served as a medical consultant to the Pacific Emergency Management, Preparedness and Response Information Network and Training Services since 2007.

DR. STEVEN J. PHILLIPS MD

“The National Library of Medicine's Disaster Information Management Research Center”

Dr. Steven J. Phillips Information and communication are critical components in the preparation for and the response to disasters. The National Library of Medicine (NLM,) with its network of nearly 6000 libraries has a long history of providing health information, training and tools for disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. In order to advance national efforts to prevent, respond to, and reduce the adverse health effects of disasters and to improve collaboration in such activities among Federal agencies, special population such as the disabled, children, seniors, local and tribal communities, medical libraries, and public health officials, the NLM established a Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC). This Center is totally dedicated to information management and communication technologies.

As Associate Director, Dr. Phillips directs the Division of Specialized Information Services, National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes Health (NIH), and U.S. Department Health & Human Services. He led the effort to establish a Disaster Information Management Research Center at the NLM. This Center, totally devoted to disaster informatics, is the first of its kind in the world. He leads NLM’s “boots on the ground” efforts to respond to the disaster in Haiti. Dr. Phillips is a member of the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events. He serves as this year's Chair of the Bethesda Hospital Emergency Partnership Program (BHEPP), a congressionally funded program to respond to a national capitol Disaster and to create a hospital surge model for the U.S. He is a member of the congressionally mandated Department of Defense Task Force on the Care, Management, and Transition of recovering Wounded, Ill, and Injured Members of the Armed Forces.

Dr. Phillips is a graduate of Hobart College and Tufts Medical School. He is board certified both in general and thoracic surgery. He co-founded the Iowa Heart Center, which by the time of his retirement employed 58 physicians, all-specializing in cardiovascular disease. In 1974, he pioneered techniques for emergency coronary bypass surgery for evolving heart attacks. This revolutionary effort demonstrated the efficacy of emergency intervention during evolving myocardial infarctions and was the basis for modern interventional technology. He implanted the first artificial heart in Iowa, performed the first heart transplant in central Iowa, and invented the technology for percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass. He has been the principal investigator for numerous research projects.

In 1997, Dr. Phillips was interviewed by the White House search committee for the position of Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. On October 7, 1998, he was invited to testify before the Full Committee on Commerce as a witness on the Implementation of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997. Dr. Phillips served in 1997 as Board of Regents Chair of the National Library of Medicine, following Dr. Michael E. DeBakey.

Dr. Phillips’ expertise in disaster management has led to a number of special appointments, including service on the Committee for Citywide Disaster Management and Triage in Des Moines, IA, appointment as National Science Advisor in Disaster Preparedness for the Iowa Department of Health, work as consultant to LTC Vick at the Fort Detrick Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents Laboratory, and service as a Board member of the Committee of Public Safety Communication, District of Columbia.

Dr. Phillips has a distinguished military service record, which has contributed to his experience and expertise to heath information requirements under field conditions and in emergencies. He served twice in Vietnam from 1968-70, subsequently worked In the Department of Experimental Surgery at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and retired from active duty in 1993 as a Lieutenant Colonel. He is a life member of the 101st Airborne Association and an Associate Life member of the UDT/SEAL Association, U.S. Navy and sits on the Board of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Reception Center. His national stature as a surgeon and inventor is evidenced by his election to many professional colleges and societies, including the America Association of Thoracic Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the American College of Cardiology, the International College of surgeons, the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery, and the International Association of Artificial Organ Pioneers. He has served as President of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs, the Society of Cardiac Surgeons, Spain, and the Polk County Medical Society, Iowa. Dr. Phillips has approximately 120 peer reviewed medical publications, and has been granted 6 patents.

MS. MARCIE ROTH

“Disaster Planning for the Whole Community to Address Access and Functional Needs of Children and Adults with Disabilities”

Ms. Marcie Roth In October 2006, the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (PKEMRA) provided a much-needed mandate to integrate the needs of people with disabilities and those with access and functional needs, into general emergency management planning, response and recovery. However, despite the numerous new requirements on planning for and meeting the disaster related needs of children and adults with disabilities, many of the same problems were seen again during Hurricanes Gustav and Ike just a few years later. Many people were still turned away from shelters, information was inaccessible to individuals who were deaf or blind, services required under disability rights laws were not being provided, and catastrophic but preventable health impacts were felt by previously stable and independent evacuees with disabilities. However, with some responsible planning and smart investments, people with disabilities can begin to trust that their needs will be better met in future disasters. In addition, taxpayers, generous donors, and the general public can rest assured that we are maximizing our limited resources and minimizing any unnecessary waste in moving forward with this effort.

PKEMRA also required FEMA to establish the Office of Disability Integration and Coordination and appoint a Disability Coordinator. Mindful of the hard lessons of the past, as well as our national mandates regarding the integration of children and adults with disabilities, ODIC has played a lead role in promoting a shift in our national emergency management approach. This represents a shift away from a paradigm that views people with disabilities and other access and functional needs as separate or apart from the general population, and towards a notion that all segments of American society will be integrated and served through a single and inclusive emergency management approach. The emergency management community is also challenged to not just plan for easy scenarios and to plan for all who may be impacted by a disaster or emergency.

Ms Marcie Roth is the Director of the Office of Disability Integration and Coordination at FEMA in the Department of Homeland Security.

She was appointed by President Obama in June 2009 to be the Senior Advisor on Disability Issues for FEMA. Once at FEMA, she developed the new Office of Disability Integration and Coordination, where she now serves as Director. In this role, she leads the Agency’s commitment to meet the access and functional needs of children and adults with disabilities in emergency and disaster preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation.

Before coming to FEMA, Ms. Roth was President and CEO of Global Disability Solutions Group, a leading national organization promoting diverse workforce initiatives with a focus on disability issues. She served as a senior member of the Obama for America Disability Policy Committee and served on President Obama’s Justice and Civil Rights Transition Team.

Over the past 20 years, Ms. Roth has held leadership positions with the National Coalition for Disability Rights, National Spinal Cord Injury Association, National Council on Independent Living and TASH, the national disability rights organization. She is known for her work in developing and managing effective coalitions to advance public policy initiatives, and is frequently consulted as an expert on strategic approaches that fully integrate preparedness, response and recovery solutions. Ms. Roth led private sector response to the additional needs of survivors with disabilities during and after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and she was commended by the White House for her efforts on behalf of New Yorkers with disabilities in the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attacks.

In addition to her own personal experience with disability, Ms. Roth is the parent of two children with disabilities, both on their way to achieving independence.

DR. GERALD J. KOST, MD, PhD, MS, FACB

“Improving the Standard of Care for Disaster Medicine—At Point of Need”

Dr. Gerald J Kost Our goal is to improve preparedness by identifying technical, strategic, and policy advances that will enable point-of-care testing (POCT), defined as medical testing at or near the site of care, to be performed reliably in emergency and field settings. Disaster needs assessment surveys document POCT is valuable. We present POC devices carried by first responders, illustrate broader arrays of what is available, address environmental vulnerabilities of technologies currently FDA-licensed, and then, design strategies to better equip first responders and alternate care facilities (ACFs) for challenges encountered in disasters worldwide. Reverse stress analysis shows that diagnostic resources should be enhanced in advance. Pivotal initiatives emerge: a) develop training and education courses, including “just-in-time,” to assure high quality of POCT performance; b) protect equipment from environmental extremes by individually sealing test strips and additionally controlling the temperature and humidity to which they are exposed; c) harden POC devices and reagents so that they can withstand wider ranges of environmental extremes; d) position near-patient testing in protected sites within ACFs where the environment can be monitored and modified; and e) advance new POC technologies for pathogen detection. Using POCT, evidence-based treatment of emergency patients and disaster victims will advance the standard of care.

Dr. Kost is the Director of the Point of Care Testing Center at the University of California Davis (UCD) School of Medicine and the Director of the UC Davis-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Point of Care Technologies Center, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH.

Dr. Kost studied Engineering at Stanford University (BS, 1967) and received his Master’s degree in Engineering-Economic Systems (EEP) prior to entering the Medical Scientist MD-PhD training program at the University of California (UC). He received his PhD in Bioengineering [NIH Bioengineering Traineeship] from UC San Diego and his MD from UC San Francisco.

Dr. Kost’s clinical residency included training in Internal Medicine and Neurology at UCLA, and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Washington, Seattle, where he was Chief Resident and a postdoctoral researcher with Dr. Jim Bassingwaighte, Bioengineering Department, prior to becoming boarded in Clinical Pathology by the American Board of Pathology.

At UC Davis for nearly 30 years, Dr. Kost is Director of Point-of-Care Testing and Clinical Chemistry for the UCD Health System. He is a tenured Professor in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, the Quality Program Chair, and faculty in Biomedical Engineering and Comparative Pathology. In 1995, he founded the Point-of-Care Testing Center for Teaching and Research (POCT•CTR) in the School of Medicine.

Dr. Kost is the Editor of Principles and Practice of Point-of-Care Testing, published by Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins (LWW) in 2002, and a founding member of the Editorial Board of the companion journal, Point of Care: The Journal of Near-Patient Testing and Technology, now in its 10th year of successful production by LWW. He provides peer review and serves on editorial boards of several journals, assists the FDA on Hematology and Pathology Panels, and participates regularly in NIH study sections and panels, most recently (2010 & 2011), the first joint NASA/NIBIB panels judging scientific experiments to be placed on the International Space Station.

After promoting point-of-care testing (POCT) widely in the United States and Europe in the 1980’s and 1990’s, Dr. Kost lectured in Asia for several years, culminating in 2003-2004 with the receipt of a Fulbright Scholar Award in Demography, Economics, and Medicine at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok. He received UC Pacific Rim and UC Outreach and International Program grants to develop national resources in POCT and optimal health care delivery systems for Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. Currently, he is developing the theory and practice of point of care in small-world networks, and with international colleagues, has produced the first global training course in POCT for low-resource nations, rolling out in 2011.

Fulbright Scholar collaborations in Southeast Asian produced two foreign language monographs, POCT for Thailand (in the Thai language), and Gambaran Tentang Point-of-Care Testing-Sasaran, Pedoman, Prinsip Dan Jaminan Mutu (Overview of POCT: Goals, Guidelines, Principles, and the Assurance of Quality), in Bahasa Indonesia, both published in 2006. Dr. Kost’s career total of creative works now exceeds 500.

As Affiliate Faculty at Chulalongkorn University since 2004, Dr. Kost’s research team there has performed health care field surveys of the tsunami provinces, hill tribe villages, the Golden Triangle, and underserved Isaarn in Thailand; of pediatric and provincial hospitals in Cambodia; and of public hospitals in Vietnam and Indonesia. Recent field surveys focused on optimizing POC cardiac biomarker testing in the vicinity of the Mekong River along the Lao-Thai border in Northern Isaarn; on POC HbA1c determined directly in village Primary Care Units of low-resource Khumuang Amphur, Buriram Province, Isaan; of boat dwellers in northern Vietnam, and now, on needs assessment for disaster preparedness and POC planning in Phang Nga Province, where the 2004 Tsunami caused major damage.

Current strategic missions include: a) the accuracy of POCT, revealed by “locally-smoothed median and maximum absolute differences curves,” a mathematical-statistical method co-invented by Dr. Kost for POCT evaluations worldwide; b) critical-emergency-disaster care under a NIBIB POC Technologies Center U54 Award ($8.6 million); c) rapid pathogen detection in sepsis using multiplex PCR, LATE-PCR, and other methods to perform rapid nucleic acid testing in whole blood, as documented by a seminal clinical study published in Critical Care Medicine (2008;36:1487-92) with Richard Louie, PhD, POC Technologies Center Fellow; d) global harmonization of critical limits for urgent clinician notification; and e) “The Critical Human,” a monograph in development.

DR. JAMES J. JAMES, MD, DrPH, MHA

“The Decade in Disasters: Ready or Not, Here They Come”

Dr. James J. James The first part of the presentation will review the programs and accomplishments of the AMA Center for Public Health Preparedness and Disaster Response to include the National Disaster Life Support (NDLS) program, the Journal of Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, grant activities and future directions. This part will be concluded with a discussion on developments in the evolution of a Discipline of Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness.

The second part of the talk will look at the epidemiology of disasters and public health emergencies. The concept of “complex” disasters will be explored with special emphasis on major events that have occurred over the recent past and policy considerations and implications in terms of how we can be better prepared and respond more effectively in an all-hazards environment.

Concluding remarks will reflect on progress in preparedness and response since 9/11 and, more importantly, the challenges that remain.

Dr. James J. James is Director of the American Medical Association (AMA) Center for Public Health Preparedness and Disaster Response, and Editor-in-Chief, Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, an official publication of the American Medical Association. The center is a relatively new undertaking for the AMA and underscores that organization's commitment to supporting practicing physicians in their expanded roles and obligations under Homeland Security. In less than three years, this Center has received over $2 million in grant funding and has overseen the development and deployment of the National Disaster Life Support suite of courses.

Dr. James brings over 30 years of experience in the public and private health care sectors–as a clinician, researcher, professional personnel manager and program director–to this challenging and critical undertaking. He is board certified in general preventive medicine, earned a doctorate in medicine at the Cincinnati College of Medicine, a doctorate in public health from UCLA's School of Public Health, and a masters in health care administration from Baylor University. Dr. James served 26 years with the U.S. Army Medical Department, serving in a multitude of capacities. His last assignment was as the Commanding General of William Beaumont Army Medical Center in El Paso, Texas. Upon retirement in 1997, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, the military's highest peace-time honor. He went on to join FHC Options in Norfolk, Virginia, where he oversaw the building and management of the FHC Options team responsible for winning several multi-billion dollar U.S. government managed care contracts.

From 1999 through December 2002, Dr. James served as Director of the Miami-Dade County Health Department. There he was responsible for the oversight and supervision of public health programs throughout the county. He was charged with the management of a $60 million budget and the supervision of approximately 1000 employees. The Miami-Dade County Health Department promotes and protects the health and safety of the residents and visitors of Miami-Dade County by preventing epidemics and the spread of disease, protecting against environmental hazards, preventing injuries, promoting and encouraging healthy behaviors, responding to disasters and assisting the community in recovery efforts.

After the tragic events of September 11th, Dr. James led the Miami-Dade County Health Department as it investigated and responded to possible bio-terrorist threats to the community. His swift and effective response to the anthrax attacks of 2001 resulted in James becoming a recognized expert in the area of bio-preparedness and he was appointed to the Governor's Domestic Security Task Force as well as the Lead Health Agent for Preparedness and Response for Region 7 in Florida, an area accounting for one-third of the population of the state. Under his leadership, the Miami-Dade County Health Department was awarded the Governor's Sterling Award in 2002. This highly prestigious award recognizes organizations and businesses in Florida that have successfully achieved performance excellence within their management and operations.

MS. ANA-MARIE JONES, Executive Director, Collaborating Agencies Responding to Disasters (C.A.R.D), Alameda County, California

“Taking the Fear Out of Emergency Preparedness: The Prepare To Prosper Approach”

Ms. Ana-Marie Jones Collaborating Agencies Responding to Disasters is a nonprofit agency based in Oakland, California that was created by local nonprofit agencies to address the preparedness and response needs of service providers — whose consumers are among the most vulnerable people in any community. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrated what is now familiar: that despite great effort and billions of dollars invested, traditional disaster response agencies — FEMA, American Red Cross, Offices of Emergency Services, Department of Homeland Security, etc. — simply cannot address all of the emergency preparedness, planning and response needs of our increasingly diverse society.

In the aftermath of that earthquake, nonprofits and community agencies across the Bay Area came together to address the preparedness, response and recovery needs of their consumers and other vulnerable residents. Together, they formed CARD – Collaborating Agencies Responding to Disasters.

CARD leads and champions the “Use NO Fear” preparedness movement and actively seeks to end the use of fear and threat of disasters as the “motivation” for emergency preparedness. Instead we have created and embraced a “Prepare to Prosper” curriculum and philosophy.

CARD complements traditional disaster response agencies by providing safe, culturally appropriate emergency services programs designed for nonprofits, faith agencies , service providers and the low-income and special needs communities they serve. CARD’s curriculum, materials and training style were developed in partnership with local agencies; with research from the fields of adult learning, facilitation, advertising and marketing, consumer behavior, disaster psychology and other disciplines; and current technology, events and trends are activity incorporated as appropriate.

With a growing realization that many communities cannot be reached by traditional methods, several government agencies work with CARD to help build their capacity to serve diverse communities in appropriate and sustainable ways. Seniors, children, people with disabilities, homeless people, Limited English Proficiency (LEP) residents, medically fragile individuals, low-income families and many others depend on their trained and trusted local service providers to survive – before, during and after a disaster. Trained, committed and united, local agencies are the best support available for people with special needs in times of disaster. CARD helps local nonprofits and service providers harness their unique ability to reach, serve and empower their consumers. When their trust, specialized knowledge, indigenous wisdom, cultural competence and day-to-day access to vulnerable people are leveraged, nonprofits are critical partners in building economic and social resilience.

CARD works to include all people in preparedness, planning and disaster response. We envision a world in which you and your loved ones can be safe anywhere you go. CARD works to fulfill this vision with government entities, community agencies and committed private sector partners.

Ana-Marie Jones is the Executive Director of C.A.R.D. - Collaborating Agencies Responding to Disasters, a nonprofit located in Alameda County, California. Created by local community agencies after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, C.A.R.D. trains and supports nonprofits and special needs communities in disaster preparedness, response and recovery activities. In her tenure, she has re-written and redefined C.A.R.D.’s services and curriculum to be based on community capacity building, economic empowerment and leadership development.

Before joining C.A.R.D. in April 2000, for three years Ms. Jones worked for the California Governor's Office of Emergency Services Coastal Region on projects supporting community organizations and people with special needs. She was also the acting Executive Director of the Northern California Disaster Preparedness Network, a 5-year funding initiative dedicated to creating emergency preparedness and response resources for vulnerable and underserved communities.

Ms. Jones works with numerous preparedness stakeholders to address preparedness, response, recovery, evacuation, funding, and the full sustainable inclusion of people with special needs. She is Chair of the Nonprofit Roundtable for the Oakland Chamber of Commerce and is a member of the Working Group on Citizen Engagement in Health Emergency Planning, an initiative of the University of Pittsburgh’s Medical Center Center for Biosecurity. She has been a panel member, guest lecturer and keynote presenter for many diverse entities including: Harvard School of Public Health, RAND Corporation, Yale University School of Public Health, Department of Homeland Security, Public Health – Seattle & King County Advanced Practice Center, Office of Minority Health and the CDC.

In November 2003 and in January 2005, at the request of the Japanese Central Government and Japanese research institutes, Ms. Jones toured Tokyo and Kobe sharing an alternative approach to disaster preparedness (Use no fear – Prepare to Prosper!) with government, emergency management, university and nonprofit leaders. In March 2005, she joined the faculty of UC Berkeley Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness.

Ana-Marie Jones is committed to ending the use of fear, as a way to “motivate” preparedness actions. She a passionate advocate for ending America’s disaster victim cycle and for building disaster resilient communities, where even the most vulnerable members will survive, thrive and prosper!